Who Killed Malcolm X?

Malcolm X Window Carbine M1 Rifle By Any Means Necessary

Malcolm X by Dave Sim

By Sandeep S. Atwal

"I want you to watch and see if I'm not right in what I say: that the white man in his press, is going to identify me with "hate." He will make use of me dead, as he has made use of me alive, as a convenient symbol of "hatred"—and that will help him to escape facing the truth." — The Autobiography of Malcolm X

I think it's safe to say that had Sirhan Sirhan, Mark David Chapman or Arthur Bremer been granted parole in early 2010, it would have made the news. When they're routinely denied parole it usually makes the news. Yet Thomas Hagan (aka Talmadge Hayer), one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X (the only one caught at the scene and the only one to confess), was granted parole between the span of the morning and evening news of April 27, 2010 to little attention. But then, even in 2010, the gap between the public perception and the historical reality of Malcolm X remains as immense as it was in 1965. He was much reviled then and is much reviled now, so nobody really has any opinion on the fact that one of his assassins is walking around as a free man. Since his assassination, Malcolm X's legacy has waned and his ideas have made few inroads into mainstream discourse. He is, at best, a marginal historical figure. He is rarely seen except as a t-shirt or a poster, scarcely quoted and generally perceived as a black supremacist hatemonger who got what was coming to him. His reputation as a violent agent of hate is a lazy synopsis made easy by the ever-present and simplistic contrast with MLK's supposed pacifism. This assessment usually comes with the unspoken addendum that if you know what's good for you, you'll disassociate yourself from him thoroughly and completely. He certainly remains "radioactive" in the political sphere. Consider the national outrage over Obama's association with Reverend Jeremiah Wright, who had paraphrased Malcolm X's comment about the Kennedy assassination being a case of "chickens coming home to roost"[1] almost a decade before the presidential election of 2008. Footage of Wright forced Obama to disassociate himself from Wright, his pastor of 20 years, thoroughly and completely. That's what happens in the public sphere today when someone you know has made even a passing reference to something Malcolm X said.

Despite this lingering perception of Malcolm X as a kind of black Hitler, the reality -- easily verified by historical speeches and interviews -- is that Malcolm X was an extremely intelligent, highly logical and rational man who understood and articulated the reality of being black in America as nobody had ever done before. At the height of his influence he was not only one of the most respected black leaders in America, but he was also beginning to wield enormous influence across the entire planet. He was an honored guest wherever he traveled in Africa and the Middle East. An autodidact who educated himself in prison, he was a keen student of history and as accomplished as any orator of the 20th century. He had an accurate understanding of the global nature of the racial problems facing America and had a plan about what to do about it. His domestic pairing with Reverend Martin Luther King in late 1964 and early 1965 is now undeniable. However, that move shocked and disturbed the U.S. intelligence community to its core, and was seen by FBI head J. Edgar Hoover as the single biggest threat to the national security of the United States. Malcolm X had forged strong relationships with the leaders of numerous newly-independent African states which, in addition to the longstanding surveillance by the FBI and the NYPD, led to him becoming a target of the CIA and the State Department...on top of death threats from the organization he had helped build, the Nation of Islam.

He had left his nationalism behind and became an internationalist. He changed the very nature of the civil rights debate by globalizing it. Rather than discuss the problems of black people in America as an issue of civil rights, he labeled it a struggle for human rights that could be taken to the United Nations. In hindsight, it's difficult to deny that he made a substantial contribution to the political, social, religious and moral discourse of how we treat each other as human beings both in the United States and across the planet. He understood that the United States was not immune to international pressure and he intended to bring that pressure to bear in order to address the racial problems the country faced. He was the first major political figure to reach out to African leaders since Marcus Garvey a quarter of a century previously. His influence was such that shortly after his death, several African nations did present Malcolm X's charges against the United States at the International Court of Justice, accusing it of violating the human rights of black people, essentially comparing it to South Africa and charging it with having its own system of apartheid under the name of second-class citizenship.

Certainly, nobody can claim greater credit for the post-war spread of Islam in America than Malcolm X...certainly not Elijah Muhammad. While Muhammad may have been the dear leader of the NOI, it was Malcolm X who increased membership in the Nation of Islam from a small cult of 500 people in 1952 (the year he was released from prison) to over 25,000 active temple members nationwide in 1963, and probably closer to 100,000 actual fee-paying members. He established the paramilitary wing of the organization, the Fruit of Islam ("We were martial artists, but we weren’t training to become black belts: we were training to kill black belts." — Thomas 15X Johnson). The newspaper Malcolm X founded, Muhammad Speaks (renamed The Final Call by Louis Farrakhan) was, by the end of the 60s, the largest black-owned newspaper in the country with a national circulation of 600,000 copies.

In a little over a decade, he went from just another prisoner to one of the most respected leaders on the world stage. His transformation was astonishing by any standard. Had his message been simply the pseudo-Islamic, quasi-mystic, black nationalism of Elijah Muhammad, it's unlikely anybody would have ever heard of Malcolm X or the Nation of Islam. But his appeal to the masses of people was undeniably real. Amidst the language of peace, love, harmony and non-violence, Malcolm X spoke clearly, directly and with an uncompromising voice to articulate what the vast majority of black people were really thinking: the promises of future justice and future equality was small comfort compared to the daily reality of lynchings, murder, rapes, beatings, firehoses, police dogs, Jim Crow, disenfranchisement and a history that had been stolen 400 years ago. This was not a society that wanted to be integrated and forced integration was not a viable solution. As John Henrik Clarke put it in the 1994 documentary Make It Plain, "While the other leaders were begging for entry into the house of their oppressor, he was telling you to build your own house." His radical position was that black people should have the same...exactly the same...rights as white people and they should have them right now. After 400 years of slavery, the white man had no moral right to ask the black man to wait any longer to enjoy the rights and freedoms upon which America prided itself. It denied black Americans equal rights even as it called on them again and again to fight and die abroad in the very name of those rights that they could not enjoy at home. Forty years later, his arguments still carry tremendous weight and yet for the most part, they remain too brutally honest to be faced directly by the public society of 2010. That brutal honesty is one of his enduring strengths:
"One white man named Lincoln supposedly fought the civil war to solve the race problem and the problem is still here...the same white man issued the Emancipation Proclamation to solve the race problem and the problem is still here. Some more white liberals came along with the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments which were supposed to solve the race problem and the problem is still here. Nine years ago, nine more white liberals, so-called, came up with what they called the Supreme Court desegregation decision and the problem is still here. Then another white man named Kennedy came along, running for president, and told Negroes what all he was going to do for them if they voted for him, and they voted for him 80 percent, and he's been in office now for three years and the problem is still here. When police dogs were biting black women and black children and black babies in Birmingham, Alabama, that...Kennedy talked about what he couldn't do because no federal law had been violated, and as soon as the Negroes exploded and began to protect themselves and got the best of the crackers in Birmingham, then Kennedy sent for troops. And he didn't have any new law when he sent for the troops when the Negroes erupted than he had at the time when whites were erupting. So we are within our rights and with...justification when we express doubt concerning the ability of the white man to solve our problem and also when we express doubt concerning his integrity, concerning his sincerity, because you will have to confess that the problem has been around here for a long time and whites have been saying the same thing about it for the past 100 years and it's no nearer a solution today than it was a hundred years ago." (The Problem is Still Here)

He cut America no slack whatsoever and refused to express his criticisms in anything but the harshest terms:
"I am speaking as a black man from America which is a racist society, no matter how much you hear it talk about democracy it’s as racist as South Africa or as racist as Portugal or as racist as any other racialist society on this earth. The only difference between it and South Africa, South Africa preaches separation and practices separation, America preaches integration and practices segregation. This is the only difference, they don’t practice what they preach, whereas South Africa practices and preaches the same thing. I have more respect for a man who lets me know where he stands, even if he’s wrong, than the one comes up like an angel and is nothing but a devil." (Oxford Union Debate, December 3, 1964)

At his most fierce, he invoked warnings that sounded more like threats:
"I, for one, as a Muslim, believe that the white man is intelligent enough...if he were made to realize how black people really feel and how fed up we are without that old compromising sweet talk...why you're the one who makes it hard for yourself. The white man believes you when you go to him with that old sweet talk, 'cause you've been sweet-talking him ever since he brought you here. Stop sweet-talking him. Tell him how you feel. Tell him what kind of hell you've been catching and let him know that if he's not ready to clean his house up... if he's not ready to clean his house up....he shouldn't have a house. It should catch on fire, and burn down." (Speech in Los Angeles after an attack on members of the Nation of Islam)

He spoke in simple but striking analogies that painted his argument for him:
"If you stick a knife in my back nine inches and pull it out three inches, that's not progress. If you pull it out six inches, that's not progress. If you pull it all the way out, that's not progress. The progress comes from healing the wound that the blow made, but they haven't even begun to pull the knife out...they won't even admit the knife is there." (Interview after the NOI began eviction proceedings)

His desire for revolutionary change was articulated frequently:
"Sometimes I'm inclined to believe that many of our people are using this word "revolution" loosely, without taking careful consideration of what this word actually means, and what its historic characteristics are. When you study the historic nature of revolutions, the motive of a revolution, the objective of a revolution, the result of a revolution, and the methods used in a revolution, you may change words. You may devise another program, you may change your goal and you may change your mind. Look at the American Revolution in 1776. That revolution was for what? For land. Why did they want land? Independence. How was it carried out? Bloodshed. Number one, it was based on land, the basis of independence. And the only way they could get it was bloodshed. The French Revolution...what was it based on? The landless against the landlord. What was it for? Land. How did they get it? Bloodshed. Was no love lost, was no compromise, was no negotiation. I'm telling you...you don't know what a revolution is. Because when you find out what it is, you'll get back in the alley, you'll get out of the way. The Russian Revolution...what was it based on? Land; the landless against the landlord. How did they bring it about? Bloodshed. You haven't got a revolution that doesn't involve bloodshed. And you're afraid to bleed. I said, you're afraid to bleed. As long as the white man sent you to Korea, you bled. He sent you to Germany, you bled. He sent you to the South Pacific to fight the Japanese, you bled. You bleed for white people, but when it comes to seeing your own churches being bombed and little black girls murdered, you haven't got any blood. You bleed when the white man says bleed; you bite when the white man says bite; and you bark when the white man says bark. I hate to say this about us, but it's true. How are you going to be nonviolent in Mississippi, as violent as you were in Korea? How can you justify being nonviolent in Mississippi and Alabama, when your churches are being bombed, and your little girls are being murdered, and at the same time you are going to get violent with Hitler, and Tojo, and somebody else you don't even know? If violence is wrong in America, violence is wrong abroad. If it is wrong to be violent defending black women and black children and black babies and black men, then it is wrong for America to draft us and make us violent abroad in defense of her. And if it is right for America to draft us, and teach us how to be violent in defense of her, then it is right for you and me to do whatever is necessary to defend our own people right here in this country." (The Ballot or the Bullet, October 10, 1963)

He knew the reality of politics in 1960s America and how they were clearly stacked against any supposed reform:
Twenty-two million black victims of Americanism are waking up and they're gaining a new political consciousness, becoming politically mature. And as they become -- develop this political maturity, they're able to see the recent trends in these political elections. They see that the whites are so evenly divided that every time they vote the race is so close they have to go back and count the votes all over again. And that...which means that any block, any minority that has a block of votes that stick together is in a strategic position. Either way you go, that's who gets it. You're in a position to determine who'll go to the White House and who'll stay in the dog house. You're the one who has that power. You can keep Johnson in Washington D.C., or you can send him back to his Texas cotton patch. You're the one who sent Kennedy to Washington. You're the one who put the present Democratic Administration in Washington D.C. The whites were evenly divided. It was the fact that you threw 80 percent of your votes behind the Democrats that put the Democrats in the White House. When you see this, you can see that the Negro vote is the key factor. And despite the fact that you are in a position to be the determining factor, what do you get out of it? The Democrats have been in Washington D.C. only because of the Negro vote. They've been down there four years, and they're -- all other legislation they wanted to bring up they brought it up and gotten it out of the way, and now they bring up you. And now, they bring up you. You put them first, and they put you last, 'cause you're a chump, a political chump. In Washington D.C., in the House of Representatives, there are 257 who are Democrats; only 177 are Republican. In the Senate there are 67 Democrats; only 33 are Republicans. The Party that you backed controls two-thirds of the House of Representatives and the Senate, and still they can't keep their promise to you, 'cause you're a chump. Anytime you throw your weight behind a political party that controls two-thirds of the government, and that Party can't keep the promise that it made to you during election time, and you're dumb enough to walk around continuing to identify yourself with that Party, you're not only a chump, but you're a traitor to your race. You look at the structure of the government that controls this country; it's controlled by 16 senatorial committees and 20 congressional committees. Of the 16 senatorial committees that run the government, 10 of them are in the hands of Southern segregationists. Of the 20 congressional committees that run the government, 12 of them are in the hands of Southern segregationists. And they're going to tell you and me that the South lost the war. (The Ballot of the Bullet, April 12, 1964)

His knowledge of scripture was comprehensive and he knew how to reach a religious audience:
"They charged Jesus with sedition...didn't they do that? They said he was against Caesar. They said he was discriminating because he told his disciples, 'Go not the way of the gentiles, but rather go to the lost sheep.' Don't go near the gentiles. Go to the lost sheep. Go to the people who don't know who they are, who are lost from the knowledge of themselves and who are strangers in a land that is not theirs. Go to those people. Go to the slaves. Go to the second-class citizens. Go to the ones who are suffering the brunt of Caesar's brutality. And if Jesus were here in America today, he wouldn't be going to the white man. The white man is the oppressor. He would be going to the oppressed. He would be going to the humble. He would be going to the lowly. He would be going to the rejected and the despised. He would be going to the so-called American negro." (Malcolm X in Los Angeles, May 22, 1962)

Reading speeches and interviews from the last year of his life is to read Malcolm X urge that Islamic leaders pay greater attention to the plight of Muslim world. Sound advice in 2010, it's an astonishingly prescient message for 1965:
"Since the Arab image is almost inseparable from the image of Islam, the Arab world has a multiple responsibility that it must live up to. Since Islam is a religion of brotherhood and unity those who take the lead in expounding this religion are duty-bound to set the highest example of brotherhood and unity. It is imperative that Cairo and Mecca (the Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs and the Muslim World League) have a religious "summit" conference and show a greater degree of concern and responsibility for the present plight of the Muslim world, or other forces will rise up in this present generation of young, forward-thinking Muslims and the "power centers" will be taken from the hands of those that they are now in and placed elsewhere." (Al-Muslimoon Magazine, February, 1965)

None of his speeches or interviews can be properly appreciated without actually hearing them in the context in which they were delivered. His ability to speak about race in uncompromising terms, touch a crowd with the naked truth, articulate their anger, answer audience questions shrewedly and with style and deftly handle hostile interviewers remains unparalleled. Of all his rhetorical skills, his ability to defuse a situation with wit and humor has been buried the deepest but there can be no doubt that he could be a very funny man. The so-called leaders who followed in his wake, be it Farrakhan, Jesse Jackson or Al Sharpton have never come close to matching Malcolm's oratorical power and thus have never come close to reaching the audience he reached. In 1963, he was second only to John F. Kennedy as the most sought-after speaker on college campuses in the U.S. and was a guest at Berkeley, Harvard, Oxford and Yale.

Contrary to the almost universal public perception of him, Malcolm X never advocated violence. He advocated the right of self-defense and self-preservation that was deemed a fundamental right to all but black Americans. He demanded those rights by any means necessary. If somebody comes at you with a rifle or a club or a noose, and the government is either unwilling or unable to protect you, and you are exercising the freedom of speech or freedom of assembly or freedom of religion that your government prides itself upon, you are completely within your rights to defend yourself. It is a reasonable proposition now and it was a reasonable proposition then. As he once said when discussing the outrage over his statement that black people should go out and buy rifles and join rifle clubs: "White people been buying rifles all their lives...no commotion."

* * *

"They're afraid that I will tell the real reason that I'm out of the Black Muslim movement, which I never told, I kept to myself. But the real reason is that Elijah Muhammad, the head of the movement, is the father of eight children by six different teenaged girls, six different teenaged girls who were his private personal secretaries." - Malcolm X, 1964

One of the most striking images of Malcolm X is of him at his home at 23-11 97th Street in East Elmhurst, Queens, peering out of his window with a rifle in hand. Although it’s an iconic photograph, [2] it's usually misinterpreted as Malcolm X looking out for whitey. In fact, it is Malcolm X defending his house, his wife and his children from his own people and the organization that he had built. As National Spokesman for the NOI, he was necessarily on the road most of the time and far away from the machinations of the organization's leadership in Chicago. Meanwhile, his own slavish devotion to Elijah Muhammad allowed him to ignore even the suggestion of improprieties by his surrogate father. However, he eventually faced the truth about Elijah Muhammad's philandering (by Elijah's son, Wallace) as well as internal corruption and jealousy within the NOI. As Elijah's family waited for the sickly patriarch to die, their primary concern was that Malcolm X would become the next leader and reveal the organization's corruption. As Malcolm X's profile rose, the rumours and lies being whispered into Elijah Muhammad's ears about the young minister's plans to usurp his power and take over the Nation spread steadily. The split between master and student had been well underway for some time.

Forced out of the Nation against his will, the combination of enmity from both the NOI and the intelligence community meant his days were numbered and he knew it. Throughout 1964 and 1965 he and his followers were under constant attack at home and abroad. As threats against his life grew more frequent and more serious, he publicly labeled the NOI a criminal organization and Elijah Muhammad insane. When he made a public statement about Elijah Muhammad's infidelities, he had signed his own death warrant and publicly stated so in several interview. ("We weren’t training to become black belts: we were training to kill black belts.") In one interview, when asked by CBS' Mike Wallace about the possibility of his life being in jeopardy, he stated matter-of-factly, "I probably am a dead man already". In his autobiography, he stated that he didn't expect to live long enough to see its publication. He was right, again.

On January 14, 1965, his house was firebombed with his wife and children inside. The NOI publicly accused Malcolm X of trying to burn down his own house and murder his own family as a publicity stunt designed to delay eviction proceedings. One week later, Malcolm X prepared to deliver a major speech, outlining the founding principles of his newly established Organization of Afro-American Unity. On Sunday February 21, 1965, just after 3:00 p.m., Malcolm began speaking to an audience of about 400 people at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights, just north of Harlem. His wife (pregnant with twins) and his four daughters sat in the audience near the front. Just after Malcolm greeted the crowd with the traditional "As-Salamu Alaykum," an argument between two men started near the back of the crowd. Malcolm's security rushed to investigate, a smokebomb went off and the crowd began to panic. In the confusion, assassins who had been sitting in the front rows rushed the stage and unloaded on Malcolm with a shotgun blast and pistol shots, hitting him 16 times in total, killing him. He was pronounced dead at 3:30 p.m., shortly after he arrived at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

Three men were convicted of the 1965 assassination of Malcolm X: Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson. Hayer was shot and caught at the scene. Both Butler and Johnson were well known to Malcolm's people as current members of the NOI and, thus, potential enemies. Had they been at the Audubon that day, they would certainly have been refused entry or at the very least, carefully monitored. Hayer refused to name either or them as accomplices, but also refused to name who his real accomplices were. In 1977 and 1978, Hayer submitted two sworn affidavits re-asserting his claim that Butler and Johnson were not involved in the assassination. In his affidavits Hayer named four men, all members of the NOI's Temple Number 25 in New Jersey, as having participated with him in the crime. Hayer asserted that a man he knew as "Wilbur" and "Kinly", later identified as Wilbur McKinley, shouted and threw a smoke bomb to create a diversion. Hayer said that a man named "Willie", later identified as William Bradley, had a shotgun and was the first to fire on Malcolm X after the diversion. Hayer also stated that a man named "Lee" or "Leon", later identified as Leon David, was armed with a pistol and fired on Malcolm X immediately after the shotgun blast along with Hayer. Hayer also said a man named "Ben", later identified as Benjamin Thomas, was involved in the conspiracy. Hayer's statements failed to convince authorities to reopen their investigation of the murder.

Like practically every other assassination in the assassination-heavy sixties, the confusion over who killed Malcolm X is considerable. One newspaper account states that two men were arrested by the police. Was a second man taken away? Conspiracy theorists will always have the Monday morning edition of the New York Herald to suggest the involvement of either the NYPD or the FBI. This is entirely plausible since we know with the benefit of hindsight (and the Freedom of Information Act) that the NYPD and the FBI were deeply involved in exacerbating the divisions between Malcolm and the NOI, which led directly to his death. Although George Breitman's The Assassination of Malcolm X is a good primer on the basic facts, the best book on the assassination of Malcolm X is Karl Evanzz' 1992 book The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. Evanzz had access to the FBI's complete file on Malcolm X and knows the subject matter intimately. His book is absolutely essential to understanding the massive campaign directed against Malcolm X.

Thanks to Evanzz, we now know that Malcolm's organization had been infiltrated by NYPD undercover agent Gene Roberts and he had also been under surveillance by the FBI for years. The FBI had infiltrated the NOI with their agent John Ali who was the NOI's national press secretary (and the Judas in the title of Evanzz' book). The FBI and the NYPD certainly had no love for Malcolm X, and bragged openly about the role of COINTELPRO in aggravating the rift between Malcolm and the NOI. In addition to Hayer's affidavits, footage from 1993 of Louis Farrakhan all but admitting to the NOI's involvement in the assassination surfaced in the 1994 documentary, Brother Minister: The Assassination of Malcolm X.

Evanzz reveals that along with several members of Elijah's Muhammad's immediate family, Louis X (later Farrakhan) and FOI captain Joseph X, the internal campaign against Malcolm X was largely directed by John Ali, the NOI's national secretary, largely in charge of finances (which had started to decline as soon as Malcolm X left)...and an FBI agent. First identified in Louis Lomax's 1963 book When the Word is Given, Ali's role, as well as the various operations against Malcolm by the NYPD and the CIA, are detailed extensively in The Judas Factor. It was obviously no secret that the racist hatemonger J. Edgar Hoover saw a serious threat in the union of King and X. As Evanzz makes eminently clear, while the NOI had their own reasons to kill Malcolm X, they were only one of several organizations that sought his death and were heavily aided in their goal of killing Malcolm.

Thomas 15X Johnson (now Khalil Islam) has maintained his innocence since his arrest in his Bronx apartment days after the assassination. He was given the role of the man with the shotgun, even though the assassin had been described as dark-skinned with a full beard while Johnson was light-skinned and was beardless at the time. He spent 22 years in prison. Butler, now known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985. He became the head of the Nation of Islam's Harlem mosque in New York in 1998. Hayer also denied Aziz' involvement. As of 1993, William Bradley was in prison on a charge unrelated to the assassination of Malcolm X. Leon David was reported to be living in Paterson, New Jersey. Hayer, now known as Mujahid Halim, was granted day releases in 1993 and was paroled in 2010. Little is known about McKinley, and Evanzz states in his book that one researcher has concluded that he is dead. Benjamin Thomas died in 1986.

* * *

In describing the sudden, explosive growth of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X once explained to an interviewer that when you plant a seed in the soil, you have to wait for some time to pass. As time passes, the season changes and when the seasons have changed, the climate changes so that the environment is now conducive to the growth of that seed. When it finally does sprout, a plant can grow very quickly. (Malcolm X was, not for the last time, crediting Elijah Muhammad with achievements that rightfully belonged to him.) Today, with the easy spread of information, individuals can actually hear and see Malcolm X deliver his message with the full power of his oratorical skills. While his autobiography has never gone out of print and the text of many of his speeches have been available for years, the difference between reading his words on the page and seeing him deliver them in front of a receptive audience is the difference between black and white. While the climate may not have changed enough for his ideas to reach the mainstream, more and more people every day realize that the story of the hatemonger is a lie. They hear his actual words for himself and they see no reason to disassociate themselves from him thoroughly and completely:

"I really don’t know what to think about Malcolm X. The media has portrayed him as a violent man, yet all the quotations that I could find from him were things I agree with completely. If I were to judge this man, solely on the quotations that I was able to find for him...I would laud him." (Laura S. Moncur, Staff Writer, quotationspage.com)

"People today who claim Malcolm X was racist obviously have nowhere near a full comprehension of the type of era he lived in: lynching, burnings, and senseless random killings of black people. He just said out loud what most black people thought. For those who believed he should have been more peaceful and kind well he needed a reason to be. He believed in fighting back, and not taking any crap. Sorry if that isn't politically correct enough for you guys." (youtube user, l9ois)

"I don't know much about Malcolm X but that one minute talk made a lot of sense to me....perhaps I have been lied to about this man." (youtube user, snowball1776)

"I'm white, and growing up in school during Black History Month it was always like 'OK kids, there were these two guys, Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, and they were both civil rights leaders but Malcolm X was violent so he wasn't as good.' And I believed that for a long time, but I've watched a lot of these videos and even at his most radical he was only talking about self defense and almost everyone is OK with that. I wonder if it was like that for everyone else? I wonder if little kids today are still learning like that?" (youtube user, shondeaphid)

I'm pretty sure they are. He was not only too advanced for his own time, but for our time as well. In the end, he preached internationalism to a world that was still adjusting to life after colonialism. As long as the public associates him with hate and violence, it demonstrates a lack of understanding and perpetuates a lie that runs against our own best interests. However, it is a simple fact that the real philosophy of Malcolm X, a philosophy that cannot be erased or ignored and continues to spread, is still being seen and heard by more people every day. Over time, however long that time is, the truth does overcome lies. A time will come when Malcolm X is restored to the position of authority he held for many people during the last year of his life; as one of the most important human rights leaders the world has ever seen. Despite the best efforts of the FBI, the CIA, the NOI and the NYPD to silence the man, his words remain as strongly accusatory and accurate as ever. The criticism of global forces that denied human beings their legitimate rights remains as sharp and relevant as ever and the solution--peace, freedom, justice and equality for all people, by any means necessary--retains all of its honesty and power.

"The main thing is that we keep a united front wherein our most valuable time and energy will not be wasted fighting each other. However we may have differed with him - or with each other about him and his value as a man - let his going from us serve only to bring us together, now. Consigning these mortal remains to earth, the common mother of all, secure in the knowledge that what we place in the ground is no more now a man - but a seed - which, after the winter of our discontent, will come forth again to meet us." - —Eulogy by Ossie Davis at the funeral of Malcolm X, February 27, 1965



1. On December 1, 1963, when he was asked for a comment about the assassination of President Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost". He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad." In further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'." -- The New York Times, Dec. 2, 1963.

“It was, as I saw it, a case of ‘the chickens coming home to roost.’ I said that the hate in white men had not stopped with the killing of defenseless black people, but that hate, allowed to spread unchecked, had finally struck down this country’s Chief Magistrate.” -- Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X

The phrase "chickens coming home to roost" was used by Random House Dictionary of Popular Proverbs and Sayings" by Gregory Y. Titelman (Random House, New York, 1996): THE CHICKENS HAVE COME HOME TO ROOST -- Chickens scratch around in the barnyard, in the fields and woods during the day. But at night they come home to the hen-house to roost. This saying is comparing a person's evil or foolish deeds to chickens. If a person does wrong, the "payback" might not be immediate. But at some point, at the end of the day, those "chickens" will come home to roost. "One has to face the consequences of one's past actions. In English, the proverb goes back to Chaucer's 'Parson's Tale' (c 1390), "And ofte tyme swich cursynge wrongfully retorneth agayn to hym that curseth, as a bryd that retorneth agayn to his owene nest". In 1810, the English poet Robert South wrote, "Curses are like young chickens; they always come home to roost." It was also know to Terence (about 190-159 B.C.) First attested in the United States in the 'Life of Jefferson S. Batkins' (1871). The proverb is found in varying forms: Curses, like chickens, come home to roost; Sooner or later chickens, come home to roost...".

"The Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins" by Robert Hendrickson (Facts on File, New York, 1997): "Malcolm X stirred up a hornet's nest when he said this about John F. Kennedy after the (U.S.) president was assassinated, possibly alluding to the alleged C.I.A. attempts on Fidel Castro's life. But the saying is an old one, dating back to at least 1810 in the form of 'Curses are like young chickens; they always come home to roost,' which appears to have been the invention of English poet laureate Robert Southey as the motto of his poem 'The Curse of Kehama.' The idea, of course, is that every curse or evil act returns to its originator as chickens return to their roost at night."

2. Although it’s a famous photograph, I couldn’t find any high-resolution versions online or any information about the photographer or where it appeared. All online sources I could find credit this photo as appearing in the March 20, 1964 issue of LIFE magazine, but after buying that issue on eBay, I saw a short Malcolm X story, but not the photo. I reached out to a friend, who put out some queries on some photo sites. No luck. I contacted Wayne Taylor who runs the excellent Malcolm X Project at Columbia University, his answer was that “allegedly Malcolm had the photo taken by folks within his organization for publicity purposes not long before his death. Because of constant death threats and the firebombing of his home, Malcolm wanted to put out a photo showing that he was indeed armed and ready to defend himself against future threats. However, I can't say where and when the photo was published.” Several months after he posted the question, my friend finally got a response back to his question on the message boards on photo.net:

“At first I tried, according to the faulty note regarding the origin of the photo on Wikipedia, to search for it in the March 20, 1964 issue of Time. As you can imagine, the effort was of no avail. However, after two hours of intensive search, i finally stumbled upon the answer: The photograph was taken by New York Times photographer, Don Hogan Charles, and was published in the September 1964 issue of Ebony Magazine. I hope this information helps. Moreover, I am hoping that, by providing you with this info, you guys will help correct those wrong information on Wikipedia."

Oddly, the famous picture is in a 1993 reprint of the article in Ebony during the release of Spike Lee's movie...but not in the original 1964 issue. However, a similar picture does appear in the 1964 issue, Googling Don Hogan Charles turned up a blog entry. According to the blog, Malcolm X got Charles the job at the Times, where he became the paper’s first black photographer and "gave Harlem a voice in the paper".


Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

may ALLAH have mercy of Malik shaheed

Anonymous said...

truly was murdered out of fear from america , fearing that the takeing of america from indians would come back in return of a black man . leaving whites as the lesser race under blacks knowing that is the true purpose of the assasination of malcom , MALCOM was preparing to unite with world black leaders outside and in america and take this country Named AMERICA.

Muhammad said...

Wow!!! Excellent essay...

Anonymous said...

Everyone needs to hear and FEEL the truth. I am a very conscious white woman who becomes very frustrated when trying to to explain Malcolm to my often ignorant and unwilling peers. I now have something to share. Thank you!

Herutehutiausar said...

El Hahj Malik Shabazz was one of the greatest leaders no matter what race creed or color. He was one of the few that actually had a solution to the problems faced at the time. The decision to unify with MLK showed evolutionary growth. He grew past religious ideology and philosophical differences and saw that he along with many others worldwide shared one common enemy. That enemy being oppression. This essay shows that he will continue to inspire others forever. I liken the unjust imprisonment of my tribal chief Maku Chief Black Thunderbird Eagle aka Malachi Z York to his assassination. Cointelpro will go great lengths to either assassinate or destroy the character of any leader that out thinks them. Thanks for sharing FREE THE MASTER TEACHER

Sanity in a world of Insanity is insane said...

Please note that the post though inspired is different from yours, the emphasis on Malcolm-X's "Pilgrimage note" taken from 'Autobiography of Malcolm X' by Alex Haley isn't in your original article.
I don't deny that my post has been inspired from your article - but the video-additions and editing to fit the length of narrative and other cosmetic changes took some good deal of time.
I usually take care in giving due credit to the original as I have done before, but missed out in this case as I had collected material on Malcolm-X and dumped into my OpenOffice-doc and hence lost the trace of the original material.
If there was any unintended breach of trust - my sincere apologies. I have now edited the original post to credit a reference to your article.
Thank you for dropping by. :)
- Peace

Anonymous said...

It is disheartening to continually see the ignorance that compelled ”followers” to carry out the directives of jealous men. A jealousy so immense that it drove ”lower level thinkers” to a murderous rage. What does it matter if MX sought the comfort of the only ”family” he came to know? Why mock his conviction and solidarity to mend a broken relationship and reestablish the original goal of the NOI.....god given rights! To suggest he was acting cowardly in his efforts to reunite with comrades of his own kind is ignorant. Ask yourself this question. If MX had intentions to damage the credibility of the NOI, then why would he try to return. This was done to dispel rumors and challenge the media's version of MX disposition. The intelligence age has posed a larger problem than why it was initially created. Slowly facts will become accessible and all those who have chosen to remain ignorant, will finally be afforded the truth.

Think Critically.......

A. C. Styles said...

For starters I love this piece and agree with almost all of it. I think it would do us all a diservice to believe however, that the NOI didn't have some involvement in his death. Was the "White Government" scared of his power, influence and intellect, absolutely but the NOI also had a lot to lose in Malcolms later life when he started to preach about the international fellowship of ALL men, not just Black Men. It was NOI members that killed Malcolm, that is a fact. Also don't bring up Native Americans in this debate as some have, or as a Native I will have to point out the fact that the "Buffalo Soldiers" who we often revere as heroes in our myths about the great country of the USA were actually puppets of the White Government who took part in the slaughter, rape and removal of the Native Peoples. All that said this is an awesome piece and Malcolm is truly great and often forgotten hero of our country. Thank you for writing this, I hope it opens some eyes.

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Harry Worth said...

By Bobby Poole & The Moronic Cretins

All my bags are packed, I'm ready to go, I'm standing here outside your door,
I hate to wake you up to say good-bye.
But the dawn is breaking, it's early morn, the taxi's waiting He's blowing his horn.
Already I'm so lonesome I could die.
So kiss me Cordele and smile for me, tell me that you'll wait for me, hold me like you'll never let me go.
'Cause I'm leaving on the Mother Plane, don't know when I'll be back again. Oh, Cordele babe, I hate to go.
There's so many times I've let you down, so many times I've screwed around,
I tell you now they don't mean a thing.
Every place I go I'll think of you, every song I sing I'll sing for you,
when I come back, I'll bring you a diamond ring.
So kiss me and smile for me, tell me that you'll wait for me, hold me like you'll never let me go.
'Cause I'm leaving on the Mother Plane, don't know when I'll be back again. Oh, Cordele babe, I hate to go.
Now the time has come to leave you, one more time let me kiss you,
then close your eyes, I'll be on my way.
Dream about the days to come when I won't have to leave alone,
about the times I won't have to say:
kiss me and smile for me, tell me that you'll wait for me, hold me like you'll never let me go.
'Cause I'm leaving on the Mother Plane, don't know when I'll be back again. Oh, Cordele babe, I hate to go.
I'm leaving on the Mother Plane, don't know when I'll be back again. Oh, babe, I hate to go.
(Apologies to John Denver)

"A nation can rise, no higher than its woman,"
Louis Farrakhan


by Lucille (Rosary) Karriem Muhammad
1. Saudi Muhammad, b. 17 Jan. 1960
2. Sumayyah, aka Lishah Muhammad, b. 13
Oct. 1961
3. Bahiyyah Muhammad, b. July 7, 1964
by Evelyn Williams
Marie Muhammad, b. 30 Mar. 1960
by Ola (Hughes) Muhammad
Kamal Muhammad, b. 24 Apr. 1960
by June Muhammad
Abdullah Yasin Muhammad, b. 30 Dec. 1960
Ayesha Muhammad, b. 4 Sept. 1962
by Tynetta (Nelson) Deanar Muhammad
Madia Muhammad, b. 1963
Ishmael R. Muhammad, b. 21 June 1964
Rasul H. Muhammad, b. 5 Sept. 1965
Ahmed Muhammad, b. 28 Aug. 1967
by Lovetta Muhammad
Lovlita Claybourne Muhammad, b. 15 July 1964
by Bernique Cushmeer
Neemah Cushmeer Muhammad, b. 6 Jan. 1965

Harry Worth said...


Muslim Arab’s most famous and influential philosopher/scientist in Islam, described BLACKS as:

“All African women are prostitutes, and the whole race of African men, are abed (slave) stock.” He equated black people with “RATS plaguing the earth.”


Ibn Khaldum, an Arab historian stated that

“Blacks are characterized by levity and excitability and great emotionalism,”
“they are everywhere described as STUPID.”

al-Dimashqi, an Arab pseudo scientist, wrote:

“the Equator is inhabited by communities of BLACKS who may be numbered among the SAVAGE BEASTS. Their complexion and hair are burnt and they are PHYSICALLY & MORALLY ABNORMAL. Their brains almost boil from the sun’s heat…..”

Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani painted this no less horrid picture of BLACK people,
“…..the zanj (the blacks) are overdone until they are burnt, so that the child comes out between black, murky, malodorous, stinking, and crinkly-haired, with uneven limbs, DEFICIENT MINDS AND DEPRAVED PASSIONS…..”

The Arabs were the first to enslave Africans, starting from 650 CE. Ten times more millions of African slaves were involved in the Islamic experience than in the Trans-Atlantic slavery of Africans by the West. Between 650 CE and 1905 CE, over twenty million African slaves had been delivered through the Tans-Sahara route alone to the Islamic world and a hundred million through the East African route. Dr. John Alembellah Azumah in his book, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, ‘estimates that over 80 million more died en-route Trans-Sahara’ and trice as many through the Eastern route.

A text from Dr. Azumah’s book provides this quote from a Zanzibar observer,
about the travails of African slaves, en-route to slave markets, around the
Arabic world.

“As they filed past, we noticed many chained together by the neck... The women, who were as numerous as the men, carried babies on their backs in addition to a tusk of ivory or other burden on their heads... It is difficult to adequately describe the filthy state of their bodies; in many instances not only scarred by [the whip], but feet and shoulders were a mass of open sores... half-starved ill-treated creatures who, weary and friendless, must have longed for death.”

A Muslim herdsman, in Dr. Azumah’s book described the fate of those who became too ill or too weak to continue the journey as follows:

“We speared them at once! For, if we did not, others would pretend they are ill in order to avoid carrying their loads. No!
We never leave them alive on the road; they all know this custom.” When asked who carries the ivory when a mother gets too tired to carry both her baby and the ivory, the herdsman replied, "She does! We cannot leave valuable ivory on the road. We spear the child and make her burden lighter.”

Arab enslavement of Black Africans continues to this day in the Muslim world, particularly in the Sudan, Niger, and Mauritania. Arabs act as if Islamic slavery is a favour done to the millions of unfortunate African men, women and children, still being enslaved now by them and those forcibly uprooted from their native lands earlier on, and condemned to lives of sexual and mental abuse and servitude, deep in the Islamic world.

Arabs do not consider Black Muslims authentic or of consequence. At best, they concede to Blacks, the role of ordained slaves or SENSELESS ANIMALS, to be used as BEASTS OF BURDEN by the “superior Arab race.” The rule applies to all Blacks, whether Muslims or non-Muslims, and whether of Nigerian (Hausa/Fulani or Yoruba extractions), or Tanzanians, Ugandans, Malians, or African-Americans.

A traveller in Sudan observed in 1930 that

“In the eyes of the Arab rulers of Sudan, the BLACK SLAVES were simply ANIMALS given by Allah to make life of Arabs comfortable.”

Harry Worth said...


Was the great and revered rabbi Moses Ben Maimon (Maimonides) a racist?
The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion refers to Moses Maimonides, a.k.a. Rambam, as “the symbol of the pure and orthodox faith.” His Guide of the Perplexed is considered the greatest work of Jewish religious philosophy.

1. “[T]he Negroes found in the remote South, and those who resemble them from among them that are with us in these climes. The status of those is like that of irrational animals. To my mind they do not have the rank of men, but have among the beings a rank lower than the rank of man but higher than the rank of apes. For they have the external shape and lineaments of a man and a faculty of discernment that is superior to that of the apes.”
Several Jewish scholars have translated the “Guide,” interpreting the above passage as referring to Black Africans:
1. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), The Guide of the Perplexed, translated and edited by Shlomo Pines; with an introductory essay by Leo Strauss (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), Chapter 51, pp. 618-19. Moses Maimonides, The Guide to the Perplexed, trans. and ed. Shlomo Pines (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1963), 2:618-19. Other translations use the term “cushites” or “blacks” in place of “Negroes.” See M. Friedlander’s translation (1904; reprint, New York: Dover, 1956), 384.
2. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), The Guide of the Perplexed; an abridged edition with introduction and commentary by Julius Guttmann; translated from the Arabic; Dalalat al-ha’irin; English; selections by Chaim Rabin; new introduction by Daniel H. Frank (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1995), p. 185.
3. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), The Guide of the Perplexed, translated from the original and annotated by M. Friedl√§nder (New York: Hebrew Pub. Co., 1881), pp. 279-80. Here the word “Kushites” is used.
One might also see Essays on Maimonides; An Octocentennial Volume, edited by Salo Wittmayer Baron (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941). Baron is quite explicit about the attitudes of Maimonides on slavery. On page 239, for instance, he writes, “For Maimuni [Maimonides] a slave is not fully human in matters of sex...”

Harry Worth said...

Foreword -- Daat Emet
For a long time we have been considering the necessity of informing our readers about Halacha's real attitude towards non-Jews. Many untrue things are publicized on this issue and the facts should be made clear. But recently, we were presented with a diligently written article on the subject, authored by a scholar from the Merkaz HaRav yeshiva -- so our job was done by others (though we have already discussed some aspects of this issue in the weekly portions of Balak and Matot). Since there is almost no disagreement between us and the author of the article on this issue, we have chosen to bring the article "Jews Are Called 'Men'" by R' David Bar-Chayim (in Hebrew) so that the reader will be able to study and understand the attitude of the Halacha towards non-Jews.
In this article R' Bar-Chayim discusses the attitude towards "Gentiles" in the Torah and in the Halacha and comes to an unambiguous conclusion:
"The Torah of Israel makes a clear distinction between a Jew, who is defined as 'man,' and a Gentile."
That is to say, any notion of equality between human beings is irrelevant to the Halacha. R' Bar-Chayim's work is comprehensive, written with intellectual honesty, and deals with almost all the aspects of Halachic treatment of non-Jews. It also refutes the statements of those rabbis who speak out of wishful thinking and, influenced by concepts of modern society, claim that Judaism does not discriminate against people on religious grounds. R' Bar-Chayim shows that all these people base their constructs NOT on the Torah but solely on the inclinations of their own hearts. He also shows that there are even rabbis who intentionally distort the Halachic attitude to Gentiles, misleading both themselves and the general public.
For the English readers' convenience we will briefly mention the topics dealt with in R' Bar-Chayim's article:
Laws in regard to murder, which clearly state that there is Halachic difference between murder of a Jew and of a Gentile (the latter is considered a far less severe crime).
A ban on desecrating the Sabbath to save the life of a Gentile.
A Jew's exemption from liability if his property (e. g. ox) causes damage to a Gentile's property. But if a Gentile's property causes damage to a Jew's property, the Gentile is liable.
The question of whether robbery of a Gentile is forbidden by the Torah's law or only by a Rabbinic decree.
A ban on returning a lost item to a Gentile if the reason for returning it is one's sympathy towards the Gentile and compassion for him.
The sum which a Gentile overpays in a business transaction due to his own error is forfeit; whether a Jew is permitted to intentionally deceive a Gentile is also discussed.
One who kidnaps a Jew is liable to death, but one who kidnaps a Gentile is exempt.
A Jew who hurts or injures a Gentile is not liable for compensation of damage, but a Gentile who hurts a Jew is liable to death.
One who overcharges a Gentile ought not return him the sum that the Gentile overpaid.
A Gentile -- or even a convert to Judaism -- may not be appointed king or public official of any sort (e. g. a cabinet minister).
One who defames a female proselyte (claiming that she was not virgin at the time of her marriage) is liable to neither lashes nor fine.
The prohibition to hate applies only to Jews; one may hate a Gentile.
One may take revenge against or bear a grudge towards Gentiles; likewise, the commandment "love your neighbour" applies only to Jews, not to Gentiles.
One who sees Gentile graveyards should curse: "Your mother shall be greatly ashamed..."

Harry Worth said...


Gentiles are likened to animals.
If an ox damaged a Gentile maidservant, it should be considered as though the ox damaged a she-ass.
The dead body of a Gentile does not bear ritual impurity, nor does a Gentile who touches the dead body of a Jew become impure -- he is considered like an animal who touched a dead body.
One is forbidden to pour anointing oil on a Jew, but there is no ban on pouring that oil on a Gentile because Gentiles are likened to animals.
An animal slaughtered by a Gentile is forbidden, even if the ritual slaughter performed was technically correct, because Gentiles are deemed like animals. (Daat Emet does not agree that this is the Halachic reason for invalidating a Gentile's ritual slaughter -- but this is not the place to delve into the subject).
Their members are like those of asses" -- Gentiles are likened to animals.
Between the Jews and the Gentiles -- In the Aggadah, the Kabbalah, and in Jewish Thought
R' Bar-Chayim's arguments and conclusions are clear, Halachically accurate, and supported by almost all the existent major Halachic works. It would be superfluous to say that R' Bar-Chayim fully embraces this racist Halachic outlook as the word of the Living G-d, as he himself pointed out in the "Conclusion" of his article:
"It is clear to every Jew who accepts the Torah as G-d's word from Sinai, obligatory and valid for all generations, that it is impossible to introduce 'compromises' or 'renovations' into it."
On the other hand, we want to make it clear that Daat Emet -- as well as any reasonable people who do not embrace Halachic laws as the word of the Living G-d -- are repulsed by such evil, racist discrimination.
In the Hebrew text we have abridged the second part of R' Bar-Chayim's article,
"Between Jews and Gentiles -- In the Aggadah, the Kabbalah, and in Jewish Thought," because, in our view, the Halacha is the law which obligates every religious Jew while concepts of the Aggadah, the Kabbalah, and Jewish thought are not binding on anyone, as our rabbis have already written:
"And so the Aggadic constructs of the disciples of disciples, such as Rav Tanchuma and Rabbi Oshaya and their like -- most are incorrect, and therefore we do not rely on the words of Aggadah" (Sefer HaEshkol, Laws of a Torah Scroll, p. 60a); we have expanded on this issue in the portion of Vayeshev.

Harry Worth said...


Here is what I wrote . . . from my heart:

"Never have I witnessed such sincere hospitality and the overwhelming spirit of true brotherhood as is practiced by people of all colors and races here in this Ancient Holy Land, the home of Abraham, Muhammad, and all the other prophets of the Holy Scriptures. For the past week, I have been utterly speechless and spellbound by the graciousness I see displayed all around me by people of all colors.

I have been blessed to visit the Holy City of Mecca. I have made my seven circuits around the Ka'ba, led by a young Mutawaf named Muhammad. I drank water from the well of Zem Zem. I ran seven times back and forth between the hills of Mt. Al-Safa and Al-Marwah. I have prayed in the ancient city of Mina, and I have prayed on Mt. Arafat.

There were tens of thousands of pilgrims, from all over the world. They were of all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe never could exist between the white and the non-white.

America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered `white' -- but the `white' attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colors together, irrespective of their color.

You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have seen, and experienced, has forced me to re-arrange much of my thought-patterns previously held, and to toss aside some of my previous conclusions. This was not too difficult for me. Despite my firm convictions, I have been always a man who tries to face facts, and to accept the reality of life as new experience and new knowledge unfolds it. I have always kept an open mind, which is necessary to the flexibility that must go hand in hand with every form of intelligent search for truth.

During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept in the same bed (or on the same rug) -- while praying to the same God -- with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the bluest of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. And in the words and in the actions and in the deeds of the `white' Muslims, I felt the same sincerity that I felt among the black African Muslims of Nigeria, Sudan, and Ghana.

We were truly all the same (brothers) -- because their belief in one God had removed the `white' from their minds, the `white' from their behavior, and the `white' from their attitude.

I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept in reality the Oneness of Man -- and cease to measure, and hinder, and harm others in terms of their `differences' in color.

Harry Worth said...


With racism plaguing America like an incurable cancer, the so-called `Christian' white American heart should be more receptive to a proven solution to such a destructive problem. Perhaps it could be in time to save America from imminent disaster -- the same destruction brought upon Germany by racism that eventually destroyed the Germans themselves.

Each hour here in the Holy Land enables me to have greater spiritual insights into what is happening in America between black and white. The American Negro never can be blamed for his racial animosities -- he is only reacting to four hundred years of the conscious racism of the American whites. But as racism leads America up the suicide path, I do believe, from the experiences that I have had with them, that the whites of the younger generation, in the colleges and universities, will see the hand-writing on the wall and many of them will turn to the spiritual path of truth -- the only way left to America to ward off the disaster that racism inevitably must lead to.

Never have I been so highly honored. Never have I been made to feel more humble and unworthy. Who would believe the blessings that have been heaped upon an American Negro? A few nights ago, a man who would be called in America a `white' man, a United Nations diplomat, an ambassador, a companion of kings, gave me his hotel suite, his bed. By this man, His Excellency Prince Faisal, who rules this Holy Land, was made aware of my presence here in Jedda. The very next morning, Prince Faisal's son, in person, informed me that by the will and decree of his esteemed father, I was to be a State Guest.

The Deputy Chief of Protocol himself took me before the Hajj Court. His Holiness Sheikh Muhammad Harkon himself okayed my visit to Mecca. His Holiness gave me two books on Islam, with his personal seal and autograph, and he told me that he prayed that I would be a successful preacher of Islam in America. A car, a driver, and a guide have been placed at my disposal, making it possible for me to travel about this Holy Land almost at will. The government provides air-conditioned quarters and servants in each city that I visit. Never would I have even thought of dreaming that I would ever be a recipient of such honors -- honors that in America would be bestowed upon a King -- not a Negro.

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all the Worlds.


El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz

(Malcolm X)"

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